गो उपस्थान ( गो शाला इत्यादि में यज्ञ के शुभ अवसर पर)

(देवराज विद्यावाचस्पति के  अग्निहोत्र सम्बन्धी गुरुकुल कांगड़ी द्वारा प्रकाशित निबन्ध के  आधार  पर )

सामान्य अग्निहोत्र की अतिरिक्त आहुतियां अथवा स्तुति मंत्र:

गो पूजन

1.         अन्धस्थान्धो वो भक्षीय, महस्थ महो वो भक्षीय, ऊर्जस्थार्जस्थोर्जं वो भक्षीय रायस्पोषस्थ रायस्पोषं वो भक्षीय  ॥ यजु 3.20

हे गौओ, (अन्ध:)  घी दूध आदि रूप अन्न के उत्पादक होने से व्यवहार  में अन्न (स्थ) हो, इस लिए आप की कृपा से मैं (व: ‌) तुम्हारे (अन्ध: ) दूध  घी आदि रूप  अन्न को (भक्षीय) सेवन करूं तुम (मह: ) पूज्यरूप (स्थ) हो ।  मैं तुम्हारे द्वारा प्रदत्त (व: )  पूज्यों  की कृपा से मैं  भी (मह: ) पूज्य  भाव को ग्रहण करूं, अथवा तुम (मह: ) दश वीर्य  रूप  को मैं (भक्षीय) सेवन करूं । (ऊर्ज: ) गो दुग्ध बल का हेतु है इसलिए व्यवहार में तुम बल रूप (स्थ) हो अत: (व: ) तुम्हारी कृपा से (ऊर्जम्‌ ) बल का  (भक्षीय) सेवन करूं (रायस्पोष: ) दूध आदि का विक्रय कर के धन के बढ़ाने के व्यवहार से तुम धन पुष्टिरूप (स्थ)हो अत: तुम्हारी कृपा से मैं (रायस्पोषम्‌) धन पुष्टि को ( भक्षीय ) सेवन करूं

2.         रेवती रमध्व्मस्मिन्योनावस्मिन्‌ गोष्ठेSस्मिँल्लोकेsस्मिन्‌ क्षये । इहैव स्त मापगात ॥ यजु 3.21

हे ( रेवती: ) धन वाली गायो ! यदि चाहो तो (अस्मिन्‌ )इस अग्निहोत्र की हवि के दोहनोपयोगी (योनौ) स्थान में (रमध्वम्‌) संचार प्रदेश  में विचरो, (अस्मिन्‌) इस यजमान की दृष्टि में रहने वाले (लोके) बाहिर  घूमने के प्रदेश में (रमध्वम्‌) विहार करो , अथवा रात्रि में (अस्मिन्‌) इस (क्षये) यजमान क्र हगृह में (रमध्वम्‌) विहार करो, इस प्रकार तुम्हें घूमने फिरने का प्रदेश प्राप्त होने से कुछ क्लेश नहीं होगा इस लिए तुम (इहैव) यहां ही यजमाने के पास (स्त) रहो,(मा अपगात) अन्यत्र न जाओ॥

3.  संहितासि  विश्वरूप्यूर्जामाविश गौपत्येन । उप त्वाग्ने   दिवेदिवे दोषावस्तर्धिया वयम्‌ । नमोभरन्त एमसि ॥ यजु 3.22

हे गौ: ! तू (विश्वरूपी) शुक्ल कृष्ण आदि बहुरूप वाली (संहिता) दूध घी आदि की हवि: देने के लिए यज्ञ कर्मों से संयुक्त (असि) हो ऐसी तुम (ऊर्जा) दूध घी आदि रस के गोपत्येन) गोस्वामी रूप से (मा) मुझ में (आविश) पूर्ण रूप से प्रविष्ट हो कि तुम्हारी कृपा से  मैं बहुत प्रकार के रस से और गोस्वामीपन से सम्पन्न हो जाऊं ॥ हे (अग्ने) अग्ने ! (दोषावस्त: ) रात्रि  में वसनशीलगार्हपत्य में (वयम्‌) हम यजमान (धिया) श्रद्धायुक्त बुद्धि से (नम:) नमस्कार (भरन्त: ) करते हैं  (दिवेदिवे) प्रतिदिन(त्वा)तुम्हारे पास  (उप एमसि) आते हैं ॥

3.         राजान्तमध्वराणां  गोपामृतस्य दीदिवम्‌। वर्द्धमानँ स्वे दमे ॥ यजु 3.23

(अध्वराणाम्‌) यज्ञों के (गोपाम्‌) गौओं के रक्षक (ऋतस्य) सत्य को (दीदिवम्‌) प्रकाशित करने वाले (स्वदमे) अपने घर में प्रदेश में  ( वर्धमानम्‌) वृद्धि के द्वारा (राजंताम्‌) उन्नतिको प्राप्त होते हैं ॥

4.         स न: पितेव सूनवे Sग्ने सूपायनो भव ।सचस्वा न: स्वस्तये ॥ यजु 3.24

हे अग्ने ! इस प्रकार  गुणों से  सम्पन्न तुम (न: ) हमारे लिए (सूपायन: ) सुख से प्राप्त हो सकने योग्य (भव) होवो। (इव) जैसे (पिता) पिता (सूनवे) पुत्र के लिए निर्भय सुगमता से  प्राप्त होता है, और (न: ) हमारे(स्वस्तये) कल्याण के लिए (सचस्व) कर्म मे युक्त होवो,(उसी प्रकार सब गुणोंसे सम्पन्न  गौ  की सेवा में युक्त हो कर हम सुगमता से  कल्याण मार्ग प्राप्त करें )  

5.         : अग्ने त्वंनो अ न्तमउत त्राता शिवो भवा वरूथ्य: । वसुरग्निर्वसुश्रवा अच्छा नक्षि द्युमत्तमँ रयिं दा: ॥ यजु 3.25

हे(अग्ने)  ऊर्जा बल शक्ति प्रदान करने वाली गौ माता  ( त्वम्‌) तुम (न: )  हमारे (अन्तम: ) समीपवर्ती (भवा) रहो, (उत) और (त्राता) रक्षक (शिव: )  शान्त (वरूथ्य: )गृह के लिए हितकारी  (भवा) हो आप. आप के द्वारा (वसु: अग्नि: ) सब को बसाने वाली ऊर्जा प्राप्त होती है, (वसुश्रवा) गौ के द्वारा प्राप्त धनादि साधन (अच्छ अनक्षि) हमारे घर पर पधरें और (द्युमत्तमम्‌) अति दीप्तियुक्त(रयिं दा: ) धन दें ॥

6.         तं त्वा शोचिष्ठ दीदिव: सुम्नाय नूनमीमहे सखिभ्य: । स नो बोधि श्रुधी हवमुरुष्या णो अघायत: समस्मात्‌ ॥ यजु 3.26

हे (शोचिष्ठ) अत्यंत दीप्तिमान (गौ माता ) (दीदिव: )सब को  चमकाने वाली ! (नूनम्‌)  निश्चय ही (सखीभ्य: )  अपने सब मित्रों के(सुम्नाय) सुख देने के लिए लिए (त्वा ईमहे )  आप से प्रार्थना करते हैं . (स: ) वह आप (न: ) हम को (बोधि) ज्ञान चेतना प्रदान करके (हवम्‌) हमारी पुकार को (श्रुधि) सुन कर (सम्स्तात) सब (अघायत: ) समाज का अहित करने वाले शत्रुओं से (न: ) हमारी (उरुष्य) रक्षा करने का सामर्थ्य प्रदान करो.

इसी संदर्भ में निम्न अथर्व वेद का मंत्र और अधिक स्पष्ट उपदेश  देता है.

अघायतामपि नह्या  मुखानि, सपत्नेषु वज्रमर्प्यैतुम्‌ ।
इन्द्रेण दत्ता प्रथमा शतौदना भ्रातृव्यघ्नी यजमानस्य गातु: ॥ अथर्व 10.9.1

7.         इड  एह्यदित्त एहि काम्या एत । मयि व: कामधरणं भूतात्‌ ॥ यजु 3.27

हे ( ईडे) गौ! (एहि) इस कर्म भूमि मे आ, हे ( अदिते) दिव्य्बगुणों की जननी गौ! (एहि) यहां आ । हे (काम्या: ) सब के द्वारा कामना योग्य गौओ ! (व: ) तुम्हारा (कामधारणम्‌ मयि भूयात्‌ एत ) तुम्हारी कृपा से  मैं तुम्हारे प्रति अनुराग से अभीष्टसुख  पाने  वाला बनूं ॥   

 

8.         सोमानँ वरणं कृणुहि ब्रह्मणस्पते। कक्षीवन्तं य: औषिज: ॥ यजु 3.28

हे परमेश्वर प्रजा के पालक मुझे (कक्षीवन्त के समान)  गौसेवा में सदैव उद्यम (कमर कसे हुए ) द्वारा ऐश्वर्य को सम्पादन करने की क्षमता प्रदान कीजिए.

 

( इस संदर्भ में ऋग्वेद  ऋषि कक्षीवंत्‌ का  गौ सूक्त 10.169 प्रसिद्ध है )

9.         यो रेवान्‌ यो अमीवहा वसुवित्‌ पुष्टिवर्द्धन: । स न: सिषक्तु यस्तुर: ॥ यजु 3.29

(गौ सेवा द्वारा )ज्ञान रूप  धनादि सम्पन्नता, कृमीत्यादि रोग रहित स्वास्थ्य, जीवनमें पुष्टिकारक साधन , शीघ्रता से कार्य करने ( निरालस्य) का स्वभाव    हमें तुरंत प्राप्त हों .   

10.     मा न शँसो अररुषो धूर्ति:  प्रणङ्‌ मर्त्यस्य ।रक्षाण ब्रहस्पतये ॥ यजु 3.30

(गौ सेवा द्वारा) हमारे स्वभाव में कंजूसी छोड़ कर दान करने की , समाज सेवा करने की वृत्ति सदैव बनी रहे, हम मृदुभाषी और कुटिल आचरण से किसी को  कष्ट न पहुंचाएं . इस प्रकार हमारी रक्षा कीजिए ।

11.     महि  त्रीणामवोSस्तु  द्युक्षं मित्रस्यार्यम्ण: । दुराधर्षं  वरुणत्य ॥ यजु 3.31

सब के साथ स्नेह करने  के स्वभाव से हम आदरणीय बनें , अपने मानसिक शत्रुओं काम,क्रोध, द्वेष इत्यादि  को जीत कर जितेन्द्रिय बनने की हमारे मस्तिष्क मे ज्योति हो,  द्वेष से रहित हो कर हम अपराजेय बनें

 

 

12.     नहि तेषाममा चन नाध्वसु  वारणेषु । ईशे रिपुरघशँस: ॥ यजु 3.32

हानिकारक आचार  व्यवहार का, और हानिकारक वस्तुओं का आकर्षक  ढंग से प्रचार करने वाले हमें कहीं भी बहका ना सकें.  , घातक (रोगादि ) शत्रु  ( कीट  कृमि  इत्यादि)  कभी भी  घर में, मार्ग में, एकान्त में हमें दु:ख न दें॥   

13.     ते हि पुत्रासो अदिते: प्र जीवसे मर्त्याय । ज्योतिर्यच्छन्त्य  जस्रम्‌ ॥

यजु 3.33

उच्च , उत्तम मानव  जीवन के लिए हमारा शरीर पूर्णतया स्वस्थ, हमारी  मानसिकता सदैव पवित्र विचार वाली हो  

14.      कदाचन सस्तरीरसि नेन्द्र सश्चसि  दाशुषे । उपोपेन्नु मघवन्‌ भूयsइन्नु ते दानंदेवय पृच्यते ॥ यजु 3.34

कभी भी स्वार्थ वश हिंसा न करें. हमें दान वृत्ति से किए कर्म द्वारा पापशून्य  ऐश्वर्य  प्राप्त हो ।

 

15.     ॐ तत्‌ सवितुर्वरेण्यं भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि । धियो यो न: प्रचोदयात्‌ ॥ यजु 3.35

सर्ष्टिकर्ता धारक,  संचालक,  पालक  परमेश्वर की व्यवस्था  के  अनुकूल आचरण  का मैं  वरण करता हूं. निराशा अकर्मण्यता  के अंधकार को ध्वस्त करने वाली देवताओं की  सदैव उत्साह पूर्ण विद्युत प्रकाश समान ज्योति हमारी बुद्धि को प्रेरित करे और हमें उत्कर्ष की ओर ले जाए.

CENT TRENDS IN DETECTION OF ADULTERATION
43 Dairy Year Book-2008
Recent Trends In Detection Of Adulteration Of Milk
And Dairy Products
Monika Gupta And M.P. Gupta
Research Scholar, Deptt. Of Chemistry U.P. College Varanasi,
Professor and Head, Deptt. Of Dairy Science
U.P. Pt. D.D. Upadhyay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalaya
& Go–Anusandhan Sansthan, Mathura-281001 (U.P.)
PREAMBLE
Adulteration of foodstuffs is commonly practiced in our
country by the trade. From the view point of protecting
the health of the consumer, the Government of India
promulgated the ‘Prevention of Food Adulteration Act’
(PFA Act) in 1954. The Act came into force from 1st
June, 1955. It prohibits the manufacture, sale and
distribution of not only adulterated foods but also
foods contaminated with toxicants and misbranded
foods.
According to PFA Act, an article of food shall be
deemed to be adulterated:
(a) If the article sold by the vendor is not of the
nature, substance or quality demanded by the
purchaser or is not of the nature, substance or
quality which it proports or is represented to be,
(b) If the article contains any other substance which
affects injuriously the nature, substance or quality
thereof,
(c) If any inferior or cheaper substance has been
substituted wholly or partly which affects the
quality of food.
If Any Constituent Of The Food Has Been
Abstracted Or Partly So
As to affect injuriously the quality of food.
(d) If the food article has been prepared, packed or
kept under insanitary conditions whereby it has
become contaminated or injurious to health ,
(e) If the article consists wholly or in part of any
filthy, putrid, rotten, decomposed or diseased
animal or vegetable substance or is insect infested
or otherwise unfit for human consumption.
(f) If the article is obtained from a diseased animal,
(g) If the article contains any poisonous or other
ingredient which renders it injurious to health,
(h) If the container of article is composed , whether
wholly or in part, of any poisonous or deleterious
or deleterious substance which renders its
contents injurious to health,
(i) If any colouring matter other than that prescribed
or if the amounts of prescribed colouring matter
are not within the prescribed limits of variability.
(j) If the article contains any prohibited preservative,
or permitted preservatives in excess of the
prescribed limits,
(k) If the quality or purity of the article falls below the
prescribed standard or its constituents are present
in quantities not within the prescribed limits of
variability which renders it injurious to health.
(l) If the quality or purity of the article falls below the
prescribed standard or its constituents are present
in quantities not within the prescribed limits of
variability but which does not render it injurious to
health.
Provided that, where the quality or purity of the article,
being primary food, has fallen below the prescribed
standards or its constituents are present in quantities
not within the prescribed limits of variability, in either
case, solely due to natural causes and beyond the
control of human agency, then, such article shall not
be deemed to be adultered
The rules laid down under PFA Acct apply equally and
essentially to all articles of food, including milk and
milk products. It is evident from the PFA Act that food
adulteration includes:
1. Intentional addition, substitution or abstraction of
substances which adversely affect the quality of
foods,
2. Incidental contamination of foods with deleterious
constituents such as toxins, pesticides, pathogenic
micro organisms etc., due to ignorance, negligence
or lack of proper storage facilities,
3. Contamination of food with harmful
microorganisms during production, packaging,
storage and distribution.
Fraudulent Character
As to the character of adulteration, generally
encountered in market foods, 9 out of 10 adulterated
foods are so classed by reason of the addition Of
cheaper though harmless ingredients added for
commercial profit rather than by the addition of
actually poisonous or injurious substances, though
occasional instances of the latter are found. Authentic
instances of actual danger to health from the presence
of injurious ingredients are rare so that the question of
food adulteration should logically be met largely on the
ground of its fraudulent character.
Nature Of Adulteration
Before going into the details of hazards of adulteration,
we will have a look on the nature of adulterants
generally encountered in milk and milk products. RECENT TRENDS IN DETECTION OF ADULTERATION
44 Dairy Year Book-2008
Milk and milk products Adulterants
Milk water, removal of fat, addition of skim
Milk, reconstituted milk, skim milk
Powder thickening agents such as
Starch, arrowroot, flour, cane sugar
Glucose, urea, fertilizers pesticides,
NaCl, chlorine and pesticide residues,
Antibiotics and other drugs
Preservatives neutralizers, kerosene
Oil petroleum products heavy metals etc.
Cream Other fats, thickening agents.
Butter Hydrogenated fats, thickening agents animal Fat,
margarine, pea nut butter
Ghee Vegetable oils, fats, animal fats, thickening Agents
pesticides.
Condensed milk Preservatives, colour, skim milk, Homogenized foreign fats
Ice cream Prohibited colour, artificial sweeteners, Prohibited flavours,
foreign fats.
Milk powder starch dextrins
Khoa, Rabari and other Starch, arrowroot, blotting paper arti
Concentrated indigeneous Ficial sweeteners, colouring matters. Milk products
Milk based sweets Starch, colouring matter, artificial Sweeteners.
Cheese Starch, prohibited colouring matters, hydrogenated fats
aflatoxins.
It is obvious from the above table that not only
harmless adulterants but toxic and injurious
substances also find their way in milk and milk
products. Many cases of food poisoning from these
dairy products have been noticed in the past. Despite
food legislation, these have remained uncontrolled.
Unscrupulous producers and traders in our country
have never shirked to deal with adulterated or sub
standard stuff for human consumption to make
monetary gains. Where millions of producers and
traders are involved where consumers are not fully
initiated in checking malpractices and value of
wholesome food, legal steps as laid down in PFA Act
are extremely difficult to maintain Furthermore without
adequate trained man power and laboratory facilities.
It is almost impossible to deal with millions of
producers and traders. More often than not the
application of the PFA Act therefore, remains confined
to large traders and organized dairies, the number of
which is relatively small.
Health Hazards
Sub standard qualities of dairy products which are
outcome of malpractice of adulteration besides
affecting adversely the nutrient value of these products
also pose potential health hazards to consumers owing
to unhygienic practices followed during their
preparation, storage and distribution. Food poisoning
out breaks through consumption of Indian milk
products and milk based sweets have been reported
(Ghodekar et al. 1974 Batis et al 1981 The types of
toxins elaborated by some micro organisms in milk and
milk products have been listed below:
S. No. Causative organisms Toxins
1. Staphylococus Enterotoxins A,B,C,D, E and F
2. Clostridium botulinum C, perfringens Neurotixin, A to F A to E Enterotoxin
3. E, Coli LT (Heal labile ) and ST (heat stable) enterotoxins
4. B. cereus Hemolysin, lecithinase and enterotoxin
5. Aspergillus flavus Aflatoxins M1, M2, M4 etc
Cheese, milk powders, butter cream frozen milk
products like kulfi and ice cream are all potential
carrier or staphylococcal enterotoxins as revealed by
several food poisoning outbreaks (Batish et al 1981) In
these circumstances, it would be appropriate to
suggest that the Public Health Authorities should see
that regulations are strictly enforced at all stages
beginning from procurement of good quality milk free
from pathogens to marketing of final products passing
through manufacture, handling, storage and
transportation.
Adulteration Rampant:
The malpractice of adulteration in milk products has
reached an alarming stage, Besides milk the menace of
adulteration is rampant in almost all dairy products but
it is too widely rampant in such products as ice cream,
butter and ghee, which are by and large, in great
demand by consumers. Substandard qualities of these
products containing various types of harmful
adulterants including pesticide residues are available in
the market. Indigenous milk products are also widely
adulterated Khoa and paneer besides milk based
sweets are widely adulterated as these are in great
demand, Ghee he costliest dairy product is the most
adulterated dairy product and most of the research
work has been carried out to find out simple, rapid and
reliable tests to detect various adulterants in ghee
(Kumar et al 2002) Reports on survey of market
guality of dairy products have revealed that about 50 RECENT TRENDS IN DETECTION OF ADULTERATION
45 Dairy Year Book-2008
percent of market samples were adulterated (Kumar et
al 1981 subrahmanyam, 1981 Sharma and Gupta 1982
Dubey and Gupta 1986 ; Sharma 1991; Rao et al 2002
and Arora et al 2004) Rao et al (2002) found 95% of
samples from venders to be adulterated .
Recently, Arora et al (2004) conducted a survey to
detect adulteration in milk in some states of North
India, using rapid test kit developed at NDRI, Karnal.
The prominent adulterants detected were urea, starch,
sugar, neutralizer, common salt and added water. The
most common adulterant encountered was water
followed by neutralizers and sugar. Adulteration was
detected in all the states of North India which were
surveyed and in some milk samples more than one
adulterant was detected the following table depicts the
status of milk adulteration in some states of North
India:
Table – 1: Status Of Milk Adulteration In Some States Of North India,
Name of
the State
Total No
of
samples
Total
adulterate
d (%)
No. of milk samples found containing
Urea Starch Glucose Sugar NeutraLiz
ers
Salt
(NaCI) Added Formain
More than
one
adulterant
Panjab 337 91 (25%) 1 1 3 0 22 0 51 1 12
U.P. 254 58(22%) 1 5 0 1 11 1 20 3 13
Delhi 64 25(39%) 0 0 0 1 16 0 0 0 8
Rajasthan 20 10(50%) 0 0 0 1 8 1 0 0 0
Haryana 321 120(37%) 4 2 4 20 35 4 46 0 5
Total 996 304 9 8 7 23 92 6 117 4 38
30.5% 0.9% 0.8% 0.7% 2,3% 9.2% (0.6%) (11.7%) 0.1% (3.8%)
Arora et al (2004)
It is obvious that Rajasthan, Delhi and Haryana are the
prominent states, where adulteration is rampant. It is
interesting to note that out of 321 samples collected
from Haryana, 120 samples were found to be
adulterated the samples from Haryana U.P. and Panjab
also contained urea/ synthetic milk.
Not only private sector but public sectors including
organized dairies have also been found to be involved
in this malpractice. Even today, quite a good
percentage of samples bearing ISI or Agmark
Standards would be found to be of substandard
quality. Even reputed brands of milk products
manufacturers are trying to maintain just the minimum
prescribed standards and not the optimum standards
of quality. Unless the laws are strictly enforced, it
would be impossible to get rid of the heinous crime of
adulteration.
Synthetic Milk Versus Adulterated Milk
Adulteration of milk has assumed new heights with the
emergence of synthetic milk in few states of northern
India. However the synthetic milk phenomenon in
India is quite recent with report appearing from
Kurukshetra, Haryana. Over the years, the reports of
synthetic milk menace have also emerged from the
states of Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan and
Uttar pradesh (Kumar et al 1998).
The word synthetic milk is a misnomer. By synthetic
milk, one would normally understand a product
analogous to natural milk in appearance physical
chemical and nutritional properties but there is
absolutely no similarity between the two. It is a high
degree of adulteration to increase the volume or
quantity of milk for increasing the profit Normally it is
mixture of water pulverized soap / detergent
vegetable/ refined oil caustic soda salt urea etc An
expert can detect synthetic milk in its pure form on the
basis of its appearance, flavour and consistency but
when it is mixed with natural milk it is difficult to
detect through organoleptic testes the smell, flavour,
colour, taste and consistency appear natural in skil
fully adulterated milk Table 2 depicts the differences
between synthetic and natural milk.
Table -2: Comparison Of Synthetic Milk With Natural Milk
S. No Characteristics Synthetic milk Natural milk
1. Appearance White White
2. Taste Bitter Palatable
3. Odour Soapy becomes distinct on boiling Characteristic milky odour
4. Texture When rubbed between fingers, gives a
soapy feeling
No soapy feeling when rubbed between
fingers
5. Ph Alkaline, 8.0-10.0 6.6-6.8
6. Urea test Distinctly positive (Deep yellow colour) Faint yellow due to natural urea in milk
7. Sugar test (Sucrose, glucose) Positive Negative
8. Neutraliser Test Positive Negative
9. Vegetable oil/fat test Positive Negative
10. On heating Turns yellowish Remains white RECENT TRENDS IN DETECTION OF ADULTERATION
46 Dairy Year Book-2008
Adulterated milk differs from synthetic milk in the
sense that the bulk of mixture is natural milk to which
some additional components, viz. water skim milk
sugar salt preservatives and / or neutralizers have
been added to enhance the bulk or extend the shelf life
of raw milk. On the other hand, the synthetic milk
does not contain any natural milk constituent synthetic
milk poses great risk to human health and life because
of excessive use of harmful detergents/ chemicals like
caustic soda urea ammonium sulphate formalin
hydrogen peroxide etc sodium ions in caustic soda and
detergents increase the risk of coronary heart
diseases. And urea in synthetic milk causes deleterious
effects on kidneys. In brief, synthetic milk is a toxic
beverage
Detection Of Adulterants In Milk
Simple and rapid methods have been developed to
detect various adulterants in milk. The ingredients of
synthetic milk are also detected by specific tests for
urea, ammonium sulphate, detergents, vegetable oils
etc.
Some of these tests have been delineated below:
1. Detection Of Removal Of Fat By Skimming
The following indicates this:
(i) Lower percentage of fat
(ii) Higher density reading
(iii) Higher ratio of SNF: fat
2. Detection Of Added Waster
The following indicates this
(i) Lower percentage of fat.
(ii) Lower percentage of SNF
(iii) Lower density reading
(iv) Depression of freezing point.
Water is the most common adulterant and its presence
can be detected by testing the freezing point of milk
the AOAc Specifies a freezing point for normal milk of
–0.550C and the percentage of dded water is
calculated as follows:
Percentage of added water = 0.550- T x 100
0.550
T is the freezing point depression (FPD) of suspected
milk sample. FPD of pure milk is 0.550.
A tolerance of 3 percent is allowed, which is equivalent
to specifying a minimum FPD for authentic milk of
0.53350C. The addition of preservatives and other
soluble matters like sugar and salts decrease the
freezing point of watered milk and thus escape the
detection of adulteration.
3. Detection Of Starch
Starch, cereal flours or arrowroot are added to make
up the density of milk to prevent detection of added
water. It is detected by starch- iodide test.
Three ml well mixed sample is taken in a test tube. It
is heated to boil over flame, cooled to room temp. A
drop of 1 percent iodine solution is added and mixed.
Appearance of blue colour indicates the presence of
starch which disappears on boiling and reappears on
cooling.
4. Detection Of Cane Sugar
It is added to raise the density to prevent detection of
extraneous water.
To about 10 ml milk in a test tube, add 1 ml conc. HCL
and 0.1 g resorcinol and mix Place the test tube in
boiling water bath for 5 min, In the presence of cane
sugar (sucrose), red colour is produced.
5. Detection Of Glucose
Whereas the test for detection of cane sugar is simple,
that of glucose is not so. For this reason, glucose may
be added to milk instead of sucrose.
Take 1 ml milk or protein- free filtrate and add 1 ml.
modified Barfoed reagent. Heat in boiling water bath
for 3 min and cool under tap water for 2 min then add
1ml phosphomolybdic acid reagent and mix.
Development of deep blue colour indicates the
presence of glucose in milk. Pure milk shows faint
bluish due to diluted Barfoed reagent.
6. Detection Of Sodium Chloride
Sodium chloride (common salt) is added to make up
the density (lactometer reading) of watered milk.
Take 2 ml of milk and add 0.1 ml of 5 percent
potassium chromate and 2 ml of 0.1 N silver nitrate.
Appearance of Yellow precipitate indicates the
presence of sodium chloride.
7. Detection Of Ammonium Sulphate
Like urea, ammonium sulphate is a chemical fertilizer,
which is added to milk to raise the density of watered
milk.
Take 2 ml. milk in a test tube and add 0.5 ml NaOH
(2%) 0.5 ml sodium hypochlorite (2%) and 0.5 ml
phenol (5%) Heat in boiling water bath for 20 sec. A
bluish colour forms immediately, which turns deep blue
afterward.
Pure milk shows salmon pink colour which gradually
changes to bluish after 2 hours.
8. Detection Of Urea
Like ammonium sulphate, urea is a chemical fertilizer,
which is added to watered milk to make up its density
(lactometer reading) Being an important ingredient of
synthetic milk, it is also used in milk to raise its SNF
content Several methods have been developed to
detect adulteration of milk with added urea. It is
noteworthy that urea is also a natural constituent of
milk. The average content of urea in cow milk is about
50 mg/100 ml whereas in buffalo milk it is present to
the extent of 35 mg/100 ml (average). It is also
important to note that feeding of urea as a protein
supplement in the ration of dairy animals does not help
to increase the urea content of milk substantially.
However, concerted investigations need to be taken up
in this direction as the menace of urea adulteration in
milk is rising day by day.
Test (i)
Take 5 ml. milk and add equal volume of 24 percent
trichloroacetic acid (TCA) to precipitate fat and
proteins of milk. Filter and collect filtrate take 1 ml. RECENT TRENDS IN DETECTION OF ADULTERATION
47 Dairy Year Book-2008
filtrate and add 0.5 ml. sodium hypochlorite (2%),
0.5ml. sodium hydroxide (2%) and 0.5 ml phenol
solution (5%) and mix.
A characteristic blue or bluish green colour develops in
presence of added urea whereas pure milk remains
colourless.
Test (ii)
Take 5 ml milk in a test tube, add 0.2 ml urease (20
mg/ml) Shake well at room temperature and then add
0.1 ml Bromothymol Blue (BTB) solution (0.5%)
Appearance of blue colour after 10-15 min. indicates
the presence of urea in milk. Normal milk shows faint
blue colour due to natural urea present in milk.
Test (iii)
Take 5 ml milk in a test tube and add 5 ml of p –
Dimethyl Amino Benzaldehyde (DMAB) reagent (1.6%
in ethyl alcohol containing 10% HCI) Development of
distinct yellow colour denotes the presence of added
urea. The pure milk sample shows a slight yellow
colour due to the presence of natural urea in milk.
Processing treatments such as chilling, pasteurization
and boiling of milk as well as adulterants and
neutralizers do not affect the determination of added
urea in milk (Bector et al 1998)
The test is more sensitive when it is conducted on
protein free filtrate obtained as in case of test (i).
9. Detection Of Detergent In Milk
Take 5 ml in a test tube and add 0.1 ml Bromocresol
Purple (BCP) solution (0.5%) Appearance of violet
colour indicates the presence of detergent in milk pure
normal milk shows only faint violet colour.
10. Detection Of Pulverized Soap
It is also an ingredient of synthetic milk like detergents
.Soaps are defined as sodium or potassium salts of
fatty acids. Hence, to detect the presence of pulverized
soaps, iodine value, refractive index, fatty acid
composition, salt ratio etc. are excellent methods. The
presence can also be detected by qualitative method
as follows.
To 10 ml. of milk in a test tube, 10 ml. hot water is
added followed by 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein
indicator. Development of red/pink colour denotes the
presence of soap in milk.
11. Detection Of Synthetic Milk
Take 5 ml milk in a test tube and add 0.2ml urease (20
mg. per ml) Shake well and then add 0.1 ml of BTB
solution (0.5%) Appearance of dark blue colour
indicates the presence of synthetic milk. The methods
for detection of urea and synthetic milk are same; the
only difference is appearance of dark blue colour in
case of synthetic milk.
12. Detection Of Neutralizers In Milk
Neutralisers such as caustic soda, caustic potash
sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and lime water
etc. are commonly added to milk to neutralize the
developed acidity in milk. Some of these chemicals
(neutralizers) are also ingredients of detergents which
are major components of synthetic milk. The
neutralizers added to milk are detected as follows:
Test (i):
To above 5 ml milk in a test tube, add 5 ml of alcohol
and a few drops of rosolic acid (1 percent alcoholic
solution) and mix well. Appearance of rose red colour
indicates the presence of sodium carbonate or
bicarbonate neutralizer in milk. Pure milk shows only a
brownish colouration.
Test (ii) Determination Of pH:
The pH of milk to which neutralizers have been added
is generally alkaline. The pH of such milk is always
more than 8.0, which can be determined by using
indicator dyes, pH paper or electrometrically using pH
meter.
Test (iii) Alkalinity Of Ash:
Neutralisation of milk with lime, soda ash or caustic
soda increases the ash content, and total alkalinity of
the ash from a fixed quantity of milk. This is detected
by ashing accurately measured 20 ml of milk and
titrating the ash after dispersing in 10 ml water. If the
amount of standard 0.1 N hydrochloric acid required to
neutalise the alkalinity exceeds 1.20 ml, it indicates
the presence of neutralisers in milk.
13. Detection Of Colouring Matter
It is a common practice to adulterate buffalo milk with
water and sell it as cow milk after adding some yellow
colour to it. The following colours are generally used:
(a) Artificial colours
(b) Coaltar dyes
(c) Annatto
(d) Turmeric
Some of these dyes are permitted only in some dairy
products but none in milk. Thee are often detected as
follows:
Test (i)
To 10 ml milk in a test tube, add 10 ml diethyl ether
and shake vigorously. Allow to stand. Presence of any
colour is indicated by yellow colour of the ethereal
layer.
Test (ii)
Add sodium bicarbonate to milk to make it alkaline.
Immerse a strip of filter paper for 2 hours. Red yellow
colour observed on filter paper indicates the presence
of annatto. Treatment of paper with stannous chloride
turns pink.
Test (iii)
Add a few drops of hydrochloric acid to milk.
Development of pink colour indicates azo (coaltar)
dyes.
14. Detection Of Buffalo Milk Added To Cow Milk
Where there is a great demand for cow milk the
buffalo milk is generally diluted with water and mixed
with cow milk to meet the shortages in demand. It is RECENT TRENDS IN DETECTION OF ADULTERATION
48 Dairy Year Book-2008
easily easily detected by Hansa test for this test Hansa
test serum is required.
First dilute the milk 1/10. Put a drop of diluted milk on
the centre of a glass slide. Now place a drops of Hansa
test serum (duly preserved) on the drop of milk and
mix together with a glass rod or clean tooth pick.
Curdy particles develop within half a minute in milk
containing buffalo milk.
15. Detection Of Formaldehyde
Formalin (40 percent aqueous solution of
formaldehyde) is the most common preservative
added to milk. The addition of any kind of preservative
to milk is legally prohibited. Yet, market samples of
milk are occasionally found adulterated with
formaldehyde or hydrogen peroxide. Formalin
(formaldehyde) added to milk is detected by Hehner
test as follow:
To about 10 ml milk is a test tube. About 5 ml
concentrated sulphuric acid containing traces of ferric
chloride is added slowly along the side of the test tube
so that it forms a layer at the bottom, without mixing
with the milk. The development of a violet or blue
colour ring at the junction of the two liquids indicates
the presence of formaldehyde the test may be
combined with the determination of fat nothing
whether a violet colour forms on addition of sulphuric
acid in the butyro meter.
16. Detection Of Hydrogen Peroxide
This is another preservative which is frequently used in
milk to prolong its keeping quality.
Add to about 5 ml of milk (suspected sample) in a test
tube, an equal volume of raw milk and 5 drops of a 2
percent solution of paraphenylene diamine. A blue
colour is developed in presencec of hydrogen peroxide.
Note: Hydrogen peroxide in destroyed when milk is
heated or stored for a long period.
17. Detection Of Nitrates (Pond Water) In Milk
Sodium and potassium nitrates are oxidizing agents
and hence act as preservative Pond water also
contains appreciable quantities of nitrates and such
water is usually admixed with milk by rural milk
producers or vendors.
(i) Take 10 ml milk in a beaker and add 10 ml
mercuric chloride solution (2.5%in 1% HCI) Mix
well and filter through what man No 42 filter
paper.
(ii) Take 1 ml filtrate in a test tube and add 4 ml of
diphenyl amine sulphate or diphenyl benzidine
reagent Development of blue colour indicates the
presence of nitrates.
18. Detection Of Vegetable Fat
In synthetic milk milk fat is replaced by vegetable fat
or oil (refined oil) Thus, vegetable fat/oil is the chief
source of fat in synthetic milk. When synthetic milk is
admixed with cow or buffalo milk, the presence of
vegetable oil/fat becomes evident, which can be easily
detected by one or more of the following methods:
(1) Detection By Measuring Analytical
Constants:
The adulteration of vegetable fat in milk can be
detected by extracting the fat either by Rose- Gottlieb
method or fat extracted in butyrometer (special
butyrometer having both end open) and measuring its
physico- chemical characteristics such as Butyro
refractometer (BR) reading, Reichert – Meissi and
Polenske values.
(2) Baudouin Test:
Hydrogenated vegetable oil (vanaspati) is a common
adulterant in milk fat. Its presence in milk fat can be
detected by the fact that sesame oil (minimum 5%) is
added in vanaspati by the law. Thus the presence of
this oil in milk fat indicates the presence of vanaspati
or sesame oil.
To 5 ml melted milk fat in a test tube, add 5 ml conc.
HCI and 0.4 ml furfural solution (2% distilled not
earlier than 24 hr. in alcohol.) Shake vigorously for 2
minutes and allow the mixture to separate. The
development of red or pink colour in acid layer
indicates the presence of sesame oil, which is
confirmed by adding 5 ml water and shaking again. If
colour in acid layer persists, sesame oil/ vanaspati is
present.
19. Detection Of Adulterants By Using Kits
Several test kits for detecting various adulterants viz
urea, neutralizers, sucrose, glucose, pesticides
antibiotics, aflatoxins have been developed in our
country at National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal,
Central food technological Research Institute, Mysore,
PCDF, Lucknow and elsewhere . For detection of
mastitis, simple strip test has been developed further
M/s Gist Brocades, Netherlands, have developed
Delvotest kits testing presence of antibiotics and
sulpher drug residues in milk.
Causes Of Adulteration
1. Demand And Supply Gap: More acute during
summer due to low milk production and increased
demand.
2. Physical Nature Of Milk: Aqueous and opaque
nature of milk can accommodate many adulterants
in milk.
3. Degraded Moral Society: Wrecked moral status
coupled with passion for profiteering.
4. Spoiled Socio-Economic Structure: Poor
persons engaged in the business do so to increase
their income and raise socio- economic status.
5. Perishable Nature Of Milk: The unscrupulous
producers / traders use preservatives neutralizers
etc. to prolong the shelf life of sub standard milk.
6. Low Purchasing Power Of Customer:
Encourages the supplier to adulterate milk and sell
at cheaper rate.
7. Unorganised Condition Of Dairy Industry:
Most of the milk is procured and traded by
unorganized dairies, which freely adulterate the
milk.
8. Low Legal Standards And Their Improper
Enforcement. RECENT TRENDS IN DETECTION OF ADULTERATION
49 Dairy Year Book-2008
9. Lack Of Suitable, Rapid And Sure Tests:
Consumers have no access to public analytical
laboratories to get their samples analysed.
Adulteration Of Ghee And Its Detection
Ghee is an expensive product costing 3 times as much
as edible vegetable oils Thus its adulteration is a very
profitable proposition and one widely practiced variable
nature of the product is a further incentive to
adulteration The analytical characteristics of ghee
cover a very wide range permitting fairly high degrees
of adulteration while still keeping within these natural
limits .
Aqueous emulsions of coconut, groundnut and other
oils, or various starches are added to milk. On souring
and churning. These pass into butter and thence into
ghee, the latter still exhibiting its characteristic flavour.
Various vegetable oils are in common use. Coconut oil
approaches close to ghee in its analytical
characteristics and is the bugbear of the analyst
Tallows and other animal body fats are procured from
slaughter houses and being hard and firm and difficult
to be detected visually in ghee even when present in
considerable amount In fact blends of tallow and
vegetable oil can be prepared which look remarkably
like ghee.
Detection
Several methods have been developed for the
detection of adulteration in milk fat (ghee) which are
based on the differences in the nature and extents of
major / minor components of milk fat and adulterant
fat / oil No single test can detect all types of adulterant
fat/ oil. Hence, often more than one test has to be
employed o confirm the purity of milk fat.
Adulterants In Ghee Are Generally Detected By
Following Methods
1. Using different fat constants (analytical
characteristics)
2. Using specific tests for different adulterants viz (a)
vegetable fats (b) Animal fats (c) Non fatty
materials.
1. Using Different Fat Constants:
Fats and oils exhibit certain physico chemical
characteristics which have long been employed for
their characterization and differentiation These
analytical characteristics indicate the nature of
constituents which make up the fat Ghee is unique
among natural fats in that it contains a large
proportion of fatty acids of chain length lower than 12
C atoms and therefore its characteristics are quite
distinctive.
Five analytical characteristics are considered to be of
prime importance. Of these, 3 characteristics, the
Reichert Meissl Value (RV) Polenske Valve (PV) and
iodine value (IV) measure certain specific constitnents
of milk fat. Two other characteristics the specific value
(SV) and Butyro refract meter (BR) reading (or
refractive index) give an indication of the overall
average nature of the constitnent fatty acids present.
Based on some of these analytical characteristics, the
legal (PFA) and Agmark standards have been provided
to keep a check on the adulteration of ghee.
Table – 3 describes the standards of ghee under
prevention of food Adulteration (PFA) act.
Table 3: Standards Of Ghee Under PFA Rules
S.No. Name of the State & U.T B.R Reading
At 400 C
RM (Reichert)
Meissl value (Min)
Percentage of
FFA (as Oleic
acid) (Max)
Percentage of
Moistur (Max)
1. Bihar, Chandigarh, Delhi, Punjab,
Haryana (Areas other than cotton tract)
Sikkim
40-43 28 3 0.5
2. Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Arunachal
Pradesh Orissa Nagland Tripura Assam
Goa Kearla Himachal Pradesh U.P. J&K
Maharashtra Rajasthan (Areas other than
jodhpur Division) Haryana (Cotton Tract
Areas) Lakshadweep
40-43 26 3 0.5
3. Kamataka Belgaum Distt Madhya
Pradesh Areas sotehr than cotton tract
areas Pondicherry
40-44 26 3 0.5
4. Andhra Pradesh Daman & Diu Dadar &
Nagar Haveli Karataka (Areas other than
Belgaum Distt)
40-43 24 3 0.5
5. Andaman & Nicobar Island Tamil Nadu 41-44 24 3 0.5
6. Gujarat (Areas other than cotton tract ) 40-43.5 24 3 0.5
7. Gujarat (Cotton tract areas) Madhya
Pradesh (Cotton tract areas) Maharashtra
(cotton tract areas) Rajasthan (Jodhpur
sub division)
41.5-45 21 3 0.5
Baudouin test shall be negative
By cotton tract is meant the areas in the state where cotton seed is extensively fed to the cattle and so notified by the
state Govt. concerned
Usually such cotton tract areas ghee has low RM value and high BR reading compared to other areas RECENT TRENDS IN DETECTION OF ADULTERATION
50 Dairy Year Book-2008
Ghee May Contain BHA Not More Than 0.02% As Antioxidant.
Table -4: Agmark Standards Of Ghee
S. No Tests All India Winter Regional Summer
1. Baudouin Negative Negative Negative
2. Phytosterol Acetate Negative Negative Negative
3. B.R.reading(400C) 40.0-43.0 41.5-44.0 42.5-45.0
4. R.M. Value (Minimum) 28 23.0 21.0
5. Polenske Value 1.0-2.0 0.5-1.2 0.5-1.0
6. Moisture (%) Maximum 0.3
7. Free fatty acids ( as %Oleic acid)
(a)Special Grade (Red Label ) Not more than 1.4 ———
(b) General Grade (Green Label) Not more than 2.5
(C) Standard Grade (Chocolate Label)
Where cotton seed is exclusively fed to milch animal.
Not more than 3.0 ———-
Analytical Characteristics Of Adulterant Oils And Fats
It is necessary to understand the physico chemical characteristics of adulterant oils and fats to assess the nature
and extent of changes in these characteristics of ghee as a consequence of adulteration. Table 5 describes some
of these analytical characteristics.
Table 5: Some Characteristics Of Ghee And Adulterant Oils And Fats
Oils / Fats B.R.Reading
(at 400C)
R.M.
Value
Polenske
Value
Saponifi
cation Value
Lodine
Value
Bomer
Value
Opacity Time
(at 230C)
CrystaliZaition
Time**(at 170C)
Cow ghee 40-43 28-33 2-3 225-235 32-35 63-64 18-19 min —
Buffalo ghee 40-43 30-36 1.5-2.5 230-237 31-37 63-64 14-15 min 18-20min
(cottonseed fed) 44-45 15-22 0.5-0.7 210-220 41-44 66-68 11-12min 10.5-12.5 min
Groundnut oil 53-58 – – 188-195 84-102 – >40min >35 min
Hydrogenated oil 52-55 – – 197-199 70-79 66-67 1.5-2.0 min >35min
Coconut oil 38-39 6- 8 15-20 245-262 6-10 – >40 min >35min
Palm Oil 39-40 4-8 7-12 243-255 10-18 – >40 min >35min
Sesame Oil 60-64 – – 185-195 100-120 – >40 min >35min
Buffalo body fat 45-46 0.5 0.5 192-199 30-36 68-69 5-7, 10-12 sec Instant
Cow body fat 47-49 – – 193-199 38-54 – – Instant
Goat body fat 44-46 0.5 0.5 197-198 33-37 68-69 30-40 sec Instant
Pig body fat 48-51 0.5 0.5 197-200 56-64 75-76 — Instant
Sheep body fat 45-46 0.5 0.5 199-200 36-41 68-69 Instant
*Time required to acquire opacity of 0.15 O.D **Time required for the appearance of crystals.
Source: Kumar et al (2002)
Besides analytical characteristics, some of other tests
like opacity test, Bomer valve and crystallization test
have been found highly useful in detecting adulteration
of ghee with vegetable fat and / or animal body fat
opacity test and crystallization tests are particularly
useful and described below in some detail.
2. Using Specific Test
(1) Opacity Test:
Singhal (1980) developed an opacity test to detect the
Adulteration of ghee with animal body fat. Test is
performed by taking a clear melted fat sample (5g) in
a test tube and maintained at 500C for 30 min. Test
tube is then transferred to 230C Water bath and the
opacity time (time taken by the clear melted fat
sample to become opaque i.e., optical density > 0.5) is
recorded at 590 nm in a colorimeter . Normal ghee
takes more than 35 minutes while animal body fat
(buffalo, goat and sheep) take only 10 to 20 seconds
to become opaque.
In a modified test, Panda and Bindal (1998a) recorded
the opacity time (table 5) as the time required by a fat
sample at 230C to acquire the O.D in the range of 0.14
to 0.16 and consequent transmittance of 68 to 72
Opacity time of pure ghee (14-15 min) was found to
be much higher than that of ghee adulterated with
animal body fats (2-9 min at 10% level and 3-11 min
at 5% level of adulteration ) and much lower than that
of ghee adulterated with vegetable oils (21-25 min at
10% level and 19-21 min. at 5% level .
(2) Crystallisation Test:
The crystallization test has been developed to detect
the adulteration of ghee / milk with animal body fat
and vegetable oils separately or in combination (Panda
and Bindal 1998 b) this test obviates the use of any
spectrophotometer /colorimeter and can be easily used
as a platform test.
Melted and filtered fat (0.8ml) is taken in a glass
stoppered tube, to which 2.5 ml of the solvent mixture
(acetone: benzene, 3.5:1) is added and mixed RECENT TRENDS IN DETECTION OF ADULTERATION
51 Dairy Year Book-2008
thoroughly. The tube is placed in waterbath maintained
at 170C till the onset of csrystallisation. The time
required for the occurrence of crystallization in fat
sample is noted.
Table 6 & 7 show that ghee adulterated (as low as 5%
level) with animal body fats (cow buffalo and pg)
crystallizes within 8 to 15 min. In comparison to
genuine ghee which shows crystallization time of 19
min (Panda and Bindal 1998 b).
Table 6: Crystallization Time * At 170C Of Ghee Before And After Adulteration With Animal Body Fats
At 5% And 10% Level.
Ghee Adulterant Time (min) of crystallization at
0% Level 5% Level 10% Level
Buffalo ghee
— 19 – —
Pig body fat – 15 12
Cow body fat – 10 5
Buffalo body fat – 8 3
Cotton tract ghee 11 – —
*Based on 8 observation
Table – 7: Crystallization Behaviour of Normal Ghee, Cotton Tract Ghee and Adulterated Ghee
Time /Temp Normal Ghee Cotton Tract Ghee Adulterated Ghee with 5% Cow Body fat
At 170C
After 5.5 min No crystals No Crystals Crystals appeared
After 6.0 min –do– Crystals appeared Crystals increased
After 6.5 min –do– Crystals increased —-do—
After 8.0 min –do– 5.5 ml crystals 4.5 ml crystals
At 250C
After 11min —do– Crystals disappeared Crystals persisted
After 25 min —do— —do— –do–
Ghee samples prepared from milk adulterated with
animal body fats (crystallization time 4 to 12 min) and
these of milk adulterated with vegetable oils (23 to 27
min) were also detected by this test. The
crystallization time of all these samples was wither
considerably lower (animal body fats as well as
hydrogenated fats) or higher (vegetable oils) than that
of ghee sample prepared from normal milk (19 min) as
is clear from table-8)
Table -8: Crystallization Time At 170C Of Ghee prepared From Normal Milk And Milk Adulterated With
Animal Body Fats And Vegetable Oils (10% Level)
Milk Fat Adulterant Time (Min) of Crystallization
Ghee (Control)
——
Pig body fat
Cow body fat
Buffalo body fat
Safflower oil
Cottonseed oil
Soybean oil
Groundnut oil
Sunflower oil
Mustard oil
Coconut oil
Hydrogenated oil (Dalda)
19.0
12.0
4.5
4.0
23.0
25.5
26.0
26.0
27.0
26.5
25.0
15.5
* Based on 8 observation
3. Baudouin Test:
Addition of 5 percent sesame oil to vanaspati is
compulsory as a marker for detecting the adulteration
of latter in ghee by Baudouin test the method has been
described in detail earlier.
4. Phytosteryl Acetate (PA) Test:
The detection of plant sterols (phytosterols) in
association with cholesterol is important in detecting
the adulteration of milk fat with vegetable fat.
The melting point of cholesteryl acetate (114-150C) is
lower than that of phytosteryl acetates (125-1370C). If
the melting point of steryl acetate is 1150C the ghee
sample is genuine and free from vegetable fat If the
melting point is higher than 1170C, the fat sample is
considered to contain vegetable fat.
5. Halphen’s Test For Cotton- Seed Oil
This test can detect as low as one percent cotton seed
oil. The ghee samples from cows fed with cotton seed
meal give a positive test. RECENT TRENDS IN DETECTION OF ADULTERATION
52 Dairy Year Book-2008
To 5 ml melted ghee in a test tube, add 5 ml iso amyl
alcohol and 5 ml 1 percent solution of sulphur in
carbon bisulphide Heat in boiling water bath for 30-35
min. The development of rose red colour indicates the
presence of cotton seed oil.
Note: If cotton seed oil has been heated above 2500C,
the test fails completely.
6. Methylene Blue Reduction (MBR) Test For
Cotton Seed Oil :
This test is based on the cylopropenoic fatty acids
present in cotton seed oil which quickly reduce the
methylene blue dye. Reduction of methylene blue
denotes either the presence of cotton seed oil in milk
fat or ghee from cotton tract area. Normal ghee does
not reduce methylene blue.
7. Lodine Test For Presence Of Starch:
Starchy materials are used when liquid oil are added to
ghee to increase its consistency. These materials are
insoluble in fat and therefore easily detected by mixing
the ghee with hot water, removing aqueous layer and
adding a few drops of 1 percent iodine solution. The
formation of blue colour indicates the presence of
starch.
Remedial Measures:
(1) There is need for rationalization of the standards
prescribed under PFA Act. Buffalo milk, for which
minimum requirement for fat % is 6 in most of the
states, is hardly available as such in the market for
sale. Either it is watered and sold as cow milk or
admixed with cow milk and sold as mixed milk. In
lieu of buffalo milk, full cream milk has been
introduced containing minimum of 6.0% fat and
9.0% SNF.
(2) The PFA Act and Rules must be strictly enforced
and offenders punished adequately. The manpower
limitation, lack of adequate training to the food
inspectors and apathy of consumers encourages
the menace of adulteration.
(3) The adulterated substandard and injurious food
stuffs (including dairy products) should be
discouraged from trade. The enforcement of the
act should be rigidly carried out particularly against
unorganized dairies and small traders and vendors,
which are the root causes of this malpractice.
(4) Certain discrepancies exist in the standards
prescribed under PFA Act and ISI and Agmark
standards. These anomalies should be rectified and
a uniform standard should be prescribed.
(5) Rapid, reliable and inexpensive tests to detect
various harmless and harmful adulterants should
be worked out so that cases of adulterations are
detected readily.
(6) The milk producers should be given incentives for
clean milk production and should be encouraged to
supply the milk to the registered village societies,
milk unions and dariries. The various
intermediaries should be eliminated.
(7) Special provision should be made for packaging
and distribution / sale of dairy products. Most of
the market samples of dairy products are stored
under unhygienic conditions and sold loose without
any specification with regard to the nature and
content of the product.
(8) Special provisions should be framed for rigorous
control over the production, distribution and sale of
milk and milk products including registration of
premises where they are manufactured,
maintenance of premises in a sanitary condition
and maintenance of healthy states of human
beings associated with the production, distribution
and sale of such foods.
REFERENCES
Arora, S., Sharma, V; Raj, D; Ram, M. and Kishore, K.
(2004). Status of milk adulteration in some states of North
India. Indian J. Dairy Sci. 57:65-66
Bector, B.S., Ram, M. and Singhal, O.P. (1998) Rapid
platform test for detection / determination of urea in milk.
Indian Dairy man 50: 59-60.
Batis, V.K., Garg, S.K., Chander, H. and Ranganathan, B.
(1981) .Indian Dairyman 33,435.
Dubey, P.C. and Gupta, M.P. (1986) Studies on quality of
rabri. J. Agric Sci Res 28:9-14.
Ghodekar, D.R., Dudani, A.J and Ranganathan, B (1974).
J. Milk fd Techn 37,199.
Kumar A., Lal, D., Seth, R. and Sharma, R (2002) recent
trends in detection of adulteration in milk fat a review
Indian J. Dairy Sci. 55: 319-330
Kumar M., Rao, Y.S and Gupta, M.P. (1981) Chemical
quality of milk based sweets sold in Agra and Mathura
cities. J. Agric Sci Re 23:13-17
Kumar, R., Singh, D.K. and Chawla, N.K. (1998).
Adulteration / Contamination of milk demystified. Indian
dairyman 50: 25-33
PFA Act (1954) Prevention of food Adulteration Act and
rules. Govt of India publication as amended upto date.
Panda, D. and BIndla, M.P. (1998 a) Detection of
adulteration in ghee with animal body fats and vegetable
oils using opacity test. J. Dairying foods & Home Sci.
17:31-36.
Panda ., D. and Bindal, M.P (1998 b) Detection of
adulteration in ghee with animal body fats and vegetable
oils using crystallization tests Indian Dairyman 50: 13-16 .
Rao, L.V., Ranganadham, M and Rao B.V.R (2002) Quality
of milk and milk product marketed in Hyderabad City. Part
I Chemical quality of milk and fermented milk Indian J.
Diary Sci 55: 338-341.
Sharma G.S (1991) quality of creamery buller marketed in
Agra City M.Sc Thesis submitted to Agra Univ. Agra.
Sharma M.B. Gupta M.P. (1982) Quality of Mawa Bhurfi
sold in Agra city Asian J. Dairy Res 1: 165-168
Singhal, O.P. (1980). Adulterants and methods of
detection. Indian Dairyman 32: 771-774.
Subrahmanyam (1981). Indian Dairyman 33. 33.
Varadaraj, M.C. Kand Nambudripad, V.K.N. (1982). J. Fd.
Sc. Techn. 19: 53.
Varadaraj, M.C. Mahadev, B.S. and Ahmed, Ashfaq (1983).
Indian Dairyman

Importance of Cow 
Contribution of Cow to Humanity 
A Vedic Perspective
1
Importance of Cow
अन्ध स्थान्धो वो भक्षीय मह स्थ महो वो भक्षीयोर्ज स्थोर्जं वो भक्षीय रायस्पोष स्थ रायस्पोषं वो भक्षीय ।। यजु-3-20 
You are the provider of most desirable objects.- Food is the most desirable first requirement of all human beings. (First Bible prayer is ‘Give us this day our daily bread’) that provides sustainable energy for our joys, wellbeing and prosperity and you are the provider of all
2
रेवती रमध्वम्‌sस्मिन्‌ योना: sस्मिन्गोष्ठे ऽस्मिंल्लोके ऽस्मिन् क्षये । 
इहैव स्त मापगात।। यजु 3-21
You are the embodiment of entire desirable wealth , on our lands and in our homes in this world. Live here, with our love and peace and never go far from us.
3
Same importance as Vedas
संहितासि विश्वरूप्यूर्जा माविश गौपत्येन। 
उपत्वाग्ने दिवे दिवे दोषावस्तर्ध्दिया वयम्‌।
नमो भरन्त एमसि ।। यजुर्वेद 3.22
Cows have the same importance for the world as Vedas. Cows are responsible for the beautiful glow of brilliance and energy of the world. Day by day growing bounties in the world flow from the cows. We pay homage to such bountiful cows 
4
Poverty alleviation & social stability 
गोभिष्टरेमामतिं दुरेवां यवेन क्षुधं पुरुहूत विश्वाम्‌।
वयं राजभिः प्रथमा धनान्यस्माकेन वृजनेना जयेम।। RV 3 times, AV 4 times 
Banish destitution, backwardness by cow.
Hunger by cow enables organic food
Healthy , Satisfied Happy society is rid of disgruntled rebellious elements 
5
Best option for the underprivileged

एभिर्द्युभि: सुमना एभि: इन्दुभि: निरुन्धानो अमतिं गोभिरश्विना । इन्द्रेण दस्युं दरयन्त इन्दुभि: युत्‌ द्वेषस: समिषा रभेमहि ।। RV 1.53.4 
Cows and other domestic animals like horses provide the option of livelihood even to the poorest lacking in knowledge, skill and resources.
Such people also develop a quiet peace loving proactive style for earning their livelihood, and do not create any enemies which can bring them harm
6
Bounties of Cow 
दोहेन गामुप शिक्षा सखायं प्र बोधय जरित: जारम्‌ इन्द्रम् ।
कोशं न पूर्णं वसुना न्यृष्टमा च्यावय मघदेयाय शूरम् ।।
RV 10.42.2 AV 20.89.2, 20.89.2
Milking the cows is like a sacred duty. Cows kept in households provide growth of wisdom, knowledge, and friendliness in society, and shatter the divisive negative forces. Individuals become self-motivated persons; develop the ability to harvest the riches and earthly bounties. 
7
Milk of cow 
सं वर्चसा पयसा सं तनूभि: अगन्महि मनसा सं शिवेन । त्वष्टा सुदत्रो विदधातु रायो sनुमार्ष्टु तन्वो यद्विलिष्टम् ।। 
त्वष्टा नो अत्र वरीयः कृणोत्वनु नो मार्ष्टु तन्वो यद् विरिष्टम् ।। अथर्व6.53.3Yaju 2.24
Cow’s Milk makes one virtuous ,promotes zeal and energy, fires the temperament towards social welfare and gives a peace loving positive friendly attitude. 
Cow’s Milk makes a person skillful, dexterous and inventive to harvest wealth. 
Cow’s milk remedies, and keeps in good repair, on regular basis, all our physical and temperamental faculties.
8
Cow is truly Divine mother 
माता रूद्राणां दुहिता वसूनां नाभि:। प्रनु वोचं चिकितुषे जनाय मा गामनागामदिति वधिष्ट।। RV8.101.15

Like Mother protects against disease,
Enabler of material wealth 
Promoter of health bounties of Sun 
Truly Divine Mother to be never killed 
9
Gross Happiness 
वचो विदं वाचमुदीरयन्तीं विश्वाभिर्घीभिरुपतिष्ठमानाम्‌।
देवी देवभ्य: पर्येयुषी गा मा मावृक्त मर्त्यो दभ्रचेता।। 
RV 8.101.16
Imparts faculties of speech based on good intellect and knowledge. 
Sensitizes to aesthetics, orderliness , sustainable strategies 
Leads to loving and peaceful life, 
Achieve a sustainable ecosystem. 
Only the dim witted- unintelligent men abandon and neglect the cows.
10
Bounties from cows

गाव उपावतावतं महीयज्ञस्य रप्सुदा। उभा कर्णा हिरण्यया।। RV8-72-12 
Where cows are taken good care of, the land becomes fertile. Soil retains moisture for longer time and never turns parched dry. (This Vedic lesson is to day endorsed by modern soil scientists, that soils which are fed with, organic farm yard manure as compost , retain soil porosity for a greater depth and hold moisture for much longer periods, and require much less artificial irrigation water, and thus save lot of water. With healthy cows, and fertile soil due to organic agriculture, all men become prosperous, rich enough to sport gold ornaments.
11
आर्य not अनार्य society 
किं ते कृण्वन्ति कीकटेषु गावो नाशिरेदुहे न तपन्तिघर्मम।
आ नो भर प्रमगन्दस्य वेदो नैचाशाखं मघवन्‌ रन्धया न: ॥ RV 3.53.14
Societies not guided by Vedic values, seek quick
gratification of their desires live a hedonist life. 
They lead a self centered life that does not
believe in sharing- performing Yajnas. 
They do not have the patience to milk a cow, 
heat it , make curds, ghee. 
They Kill & eat the cow
12
Cow Promotes Health, intellect and positive attitudes 

अयं स शिञ्क्ते येन गौरभीवृता मिमाति मायुंध्वसनावधि श्रिता। सा चित्तिभिर्नि हि चकार मर्त्यं विद्युद् भवन्ती प्रति वव्रिमौहत।। RV 1.164.29, AV 9.1 0.7 
In the land that is immersed in the sounds made by cows ensconced in comfort and affection, the temperaments of men become introspective, looking to the welfare of down trodden, but highly self motivated as if they were electrified in execution of deeds of harmony and beauty .
13
Cows make life beautiful 

सुरूपकृत्नुमूतये सुदुधामिव गोदुहे। जुहूमसि द्यवि द्यवि ।। RV 1.4.1 
Daily efforts in service of good
milk giving cows bless us everyday growing beautiful bounties.
14
Cows enhance intellect 
उप नः सवनागहि सोमस्य सोमपाः पिब । गोदा
इद्रेवतोमदः ।। RV 1.4.2
Cows give us vision to make 
knowledge creating hubs that increase
our knowledge resource, make one more enterprising & prosperous
(SOM is the software of human Hardware) 
15
Cows brings forth good leadership
एवा ह्यस्यसूनृता विरप्शी गोमती मही। पक्वा शाखा न दाशुषे ।। RV1.8.8
Land with abundance of good cows, develops forceful speaker and good statesmen, like fruit trees bearing ripe fruits in plenty.
16
Cow protects from bad thoughts
परोऽपेहि मनस्पाप किमशस्तानि शंससि ।
परेहि न त्वा कायये वृक्षान् वनानि सं चर गृहेषु गोषु मे मनः ।। AV 6-45-1
Pastoral life style involving oneself 
with cows, trees, forests provides a 
temperament that is confident, and
free of malice and ill will. 
 
17
Cow is basis of Organic Agriculture
एतौ मे गावौ प्रमरस्य युक्तौ मो सु प्रसेधी: मुहु: 
उन्ममन्धि। आप: चित्‌ विनशन्ति अर्थम्‌ सूर: च मर्क उपरो बभूवान्‌।। RV 10.27.20
Farmlands with cows retain water and maintain healthy soil organisms, with twin bounties Urine and Dung of cows, which eliminate harmful microorganism and keep soil fertile like sun and rains make land free from harmful pests & fertile.
18
Cow sounds are pest repellants and growth promoters
वृक्षे वृक्षे नियता मीमयद्ग्नौ-स्ततौ वय: प्रपतान् 
पूरुषाद:।अथेदंविश्वं भुवनं भयात इन्द्राय सुन्वदृषये च शिक्षित्‌।। RV 10.27.22
Sounds made by the cows free the trees
and vegetation of pests, and promote 
growth.
(Ultrasonic are pest repellants)
19
Cow dung & urine are links in Carbon Nitrogen Cycle 
देवानां माने प्रथमा अतिष्ठन् कृन्तत्रात्‌ एषाम्‌ उपरा: उदायन्‌।
त्रय: तपन्ति पृथिवीम्‌ अनूपा द्वा बृबूकं वहत: पुरीषम्‌।। 
RV 10.27.23
We are grateful to Indra for first lifting from the ground through clouds, winds, and then by giving back by rains and sun in their affirmative mode feed the fertile soil with cow dung and cow urine, and warmth of sunshine to make lands fertile and bring prosperity.( by providing the land link of Carbon and nitrogenous, Phosphorus, fertilizers in the ecological system.)
20
Cow carbon nitrogen cycle 
21
Cows Provide the twin bounties 
भरद्वाजायाव धुक्षत द्विता। धेनुं च विश्वदोहस मिषंच विश्वभोजसम्‌।। RV 6.48.13
Learned ladies/ people tell that the cows provide us with twin bounties for the world. Milk very apparently but not so apparently our food through supporting sustainable agriculture by fertilized soil. 
22
Cow provides protection from disease
संवत्सरीणं पय उस्रियायास्तस्य माशीद्यातुधानो नृचक्ष: । पीयूषमग्ने यतमस्तितृप्सात् तं प्रत्यञ्चमर्चिषा विध्य मर्मन् ।। RV10.87.17,AV8.3.17
Cows by (getting pregnant) provide throughout the year and year after year, the milk ambrosia for you to satiate yourself. Do not allow the harmful organisms that obstruct regular milk from cows to succeed. Pierce those contending demons in their vital parts to destroy them with flames (by performing Agnihotra with Cow Ghee and milk) . 
23
Biocidal virtues of Cows ‘Hornflies’ 
विषं गवां यातुधाना: पिबन्तु आवृश्च्यन्ताम्‌ अदितये दुरेवा: । परैनान् देवो सविता ददातु परा भागम्‌ ओषधीनां जयन्ताम् ।। 
RV10.87.18 AV8.3.16
Let the demons that drink from the cows to poison them (Horn flies & Ticks) should be destroyed by exposing to Sun. Let these demons hard to overcome be cut to pieces for the sake of growing good food and herbs that have nutritious and medicinal qualities. Thus restore cows to good health and medicinal quality milk. (This is reference to cutting up cow dung and exposing it to sun to destroy the eggs of horn flies and other harmful organism, before vermicompost for use in Organic fertilizers.)

24
State Duties for Cows 
गोविप्रपालनं कार्य राजा गोशान्ति मावदे।
गाव: पवित्रा मान्गल्या गोषु: लोका: प्रतिष्ठिता।। अग्निपुराणम्-292. 
State should sustain and promote sacred cows for welfare and intellects. Now I speak of welfare of cows. Cows are sacred and bountiful. In cows the entire world is sustained।

25
Cow Urine and Dung destroy poverty
शकृन्मूत्रं परं ।तासामलक्ष्मीनाशनमं परम्‌।
गवां कण्डूयनं वारि शृञ्गस्य मर्दनम्‌। Agnipuran 
Cow dropping and urine are the foremost means of destroying poverty. Providing comfort to cows by scrubbing their body providing water and massaging the horns wear away all the ailments.
26
Panchgavy 
गोमूत्रां गोमयं क्षीरं दधि:सर्पिः कुशोदकम।
षडञ्गं परमं पाने दु:स्वप्नाद्यिादिवारणम्‌।। Agnipuran (3)
Cow urine droppings milk curd ghee in abundance when utilized freely mitigate all bad eventualities.
27
Prosperity through Cows
रोचना विषरक्षोघ्नी ग्रासद: स्वर्गगो गवाम् ।
यद्गृहे दुःखिता गावः स याति नरकं नरः ।। Agnipuran 
Ambiance of happy good cows removes the disease causing poisons and viruses of evil spirits. Where cows are in agony those lands fall on the evil days and become hell.
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GOGRASS
पर गोग्रासद: स्वर्गी गोहितो ब्रह्मलोक् भाक्‌।
गोदानात्कीर्तनाद्रक्षां कृत्वा चोद्धरते कुलम।। Agnipuran 
Feeding other’s cows and taking care of all cows ( not selfishly only your own) obtains for you the bounties of heavens. Welfare and charity of cows brings about progress of future generations.

AV6.44.3 रुद्रस्य मूत्रमस्यमृतस्य नाभि: | विषाणका नामवा असि पितृणां मूलादुत्थिता वातीकृतनाशनी || अथर्व 6.44.3  

हे गोषृङ्गोदक , गोमूत्र तू सब रोगाणुओं को नष्ट  करने वाला चिरस्थायी जीवन का आधार है. तू विशेषतया रोगों का विभाग करने वाला है, इसी लिए विषाणक नाम से भी जाना जाता है.  पितरों के कारण होने वाले अर्थात अनुवांशिक रोगों को तथा वात रोगों का नाश करने वाला है. 

Why Alzheimer , Parkinson, Senile dementia  brain related problems are increasing today? 

Research has shown that pesticides and other agricultural chemicals are neurotoxins and can cause disruptions to your neurological system and your brain. The reason why neurotoxins still enjoy widespread use on our fresh food supply is really more about the bottom line for farming operations than it is about the science of human health.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers 60 percent of herbicides, 90 percent of fungicides, and 30 percent of insecticides to be carcinogenic. All of these toxins are permitted on conventional farms, and any number of them can end up on your plate when you purchase conventionally-grown fruits and vegetables.

The increased use of genetically engineered Bt hybrid plants1 and soil insecticides also increases the chemical load in food — particularly processed foods.

These man-made neurotoxic chemicals can bioaccumulate in your body, as they resist breaking down in water and also accumulate and store in fat, where they can remain for long periods of time.

In short, this means your body has a very hard time getting rid of them once they enter your body. The answer, of course, is to limit your exposure as much as possible, giving your body a chance to eliminate the toxins you do inadvertently ingest. One food that can help with detoxification is fermented foods. 

Take more fermented milk products such as curds- lassi.

And unless you are sure that you are getting genuine organic stuff, consider to clean your fruits and vegetables by the following suggested methods.;

Washing pesticides/bacteria from fruits and vegetables

Washing Fruit and Vegetables with Detergent

Agricultural pesticides do not come off with water alone. Luckily just by adding washing-up liquid (detergent) to water and generously swishing the fruit or vegetables around for a couple of minutes can often lift off much of the pesticide residue.

 

Alternatively to avoid use of detergents following can be tried.

1. 1 tablespoon of lemon juice, 2 tablespoons of baking soda, 1 cup (250ml) of water. Put the mixture in a spray-topped bottle. Spray the fruit or vegetables, leave to sit for 5–10 minutes, then rinse well.

2. 1 tablespoon lemon juice, 2 tablespoons white vinegar (distilled works best), 1 cup (250ml) water in a spray-topped bottle. Spray the fruit or vegetables, wipe and eat.

For particularly waxy fruit or vegetables, try this mixture:

3.    1 cup (250ml) water, half a cup (115ml) vinegar, 1 tablespoon baking soda and dash of grapefruit seed extract. Spray this onto the produce and leave for an hour before rinsing and eating.

ement Asbestos sheet roofs are among the cheapest Goshala roofing alternative.  Are they safe ?

(Based on The Western Australian Advisory Committee on Hazardous Substances. 1990. Asbestos cement.)

Asbestos cement sheeting is not 100% asbestos. It is a cement sheet reinforced with typically 10-15% asbestos. The size of asbestos fibers affects their risk to human health. Fibers that can reach the smallest airways of the lungs (respirable fibers) pose the greatest risk. Larger fibers are removed by the body in various ways.

If left undisturbed, asbestos cement sheeting is considered to pose a negligible risk to your health because the asbestos fibers are bound in the cement.

Cracked or Damaged Sheeting: At the time asbestos cement sheeting is cracked or damaged, some respirable asbestos fibers can be released into the air. However, the number of released fibers is likely to be very low. This is because the material is not 100% asbestos, asbestos fibers in the sheeting are predominantly large and the asbestos is bound into the cement. Even if you are close to the material when it cracks or is damaged, it poses a very low health risk. The health risk reduces if you are further away. (More than one meter separation in the open can be considered safe)

After it is damaged/ chipped/cracked, asbestos cement sheeting does not continue to release significant asbestos fibers into the air. This is because the asbestos continues to be bound in the cement. To protect exposed edges from ongoing damage or fibre release, they can be painted or sealed.

Weathered Roofs: Over time, asbestos cement roofs will deteriorate. T he cement slowly breaks down and asbestos fibers are washed and blown away. Even if an asbestos cement roof is in poor condition, it is not likely to pose an increased risk to your health. Any released fibers rapidly disperse into the air and their concentration (the number of fibers in an amount of air) reduces within a short distance from the roof. Air testing near the ground has shown the concentration of fibers is very low, the same as if the asbestos cement roof was not there. Asbestos cement roofs can be left in place until they are no longer water tight. However, they can pose an increased risk to your health when they are disturbed or being worked on, especially with power tools or water blasters, or when the roof gutters are being cleaned. Precautions need to be taken at such times.

 

Australian Prime Minister does it again!! 
This woman should be appointed Queen of the World.. Truer words have never been spoken.
 

It took a lot of courage for this woman to speak what she had to say for the world to hear. The retribution could be phenomenal, but at least she was willing to take a stand on her and Australia ‘s beliefs. 
The wholeworldneeds a leader like this! 

<ATT00001.jpg>Prime Minister Julia Gillard- Australia 

Muslims who want to live under Islamic Sharia law were told on Wednesday to get out of Australia , as the government targeted radicals in a bid to head off potential terror attacks.. 

Separately, Gillard angered some Australian Muslims on Wednesday by saying she supported spy agencies monitoring the nation’s mosques. Quote: 

‘IMMIGRANTS, NOT AUSTRALIANS, MUST ADAPT.. Take It Or Leave It. 
I am tired of this nation worrying about whether we are offending some individual or their culture. Since the terrorist attacks on Bali , we have experienced a surge in patriotism by the majority of Australians. ‘ 

‘This culture has been developed over two centuries of struggles, trials and victories by millions of men and women who have sought freedom’ 

‘We speak mainly ENGLISH, not Spanish, Lebanese, Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Russian, or any other language. Therefore, if you wish to become part of our society, learn the language!’ 

‘Most Australians believe in God. This is not some Christian, right wing, political push, but a fact, because Christian men and women, on Christian principles, founded this nation, and this is clearly documented. It is certainly appropriate to display it on the walls of our schools. If God offends you, then I suggest you consider another part of the world as your new home, because God is part of our culture.’ 

‘We will accept your beliefs, and will not question why. All we ask is that you accept ours, and live in harmony and peaceful enjoyment with us.’ 

‘This is OUR COUNTRY, OUR LAND, and OUR LIFESTYLE, and we will allow you every opportunity to enjoy all this. But once you are done complaining, whining, and griping about Our Flag, Our Pledge, Our Christian beliefs, or Our Way of Life, I highly encourage you take advantage of one other great Australian freedom, ‘THE RIGHT TO LEAVE’.’ 
‘If you aren’t happy here then LEAVE. We didn’t force you to come here. You asked to be here. So accept the country YOU accepted.’

Maybe if we circulate this amongst ourselves in India , and who knows, the rest of world… WE will find the courage to start speaking and voicing the same truths.
If you agree please SEND THIS ON
 .

Worst fears are that this news from Australia  portend what our planners’ by blindly following western Technological Excellence and consumerist lifestyle can bring to happen in India. 

Continuing suicides by Indian Farmers and this news from Australia should force our planners to realize that only a vegetarian society and cow based organic agriculture can be a sustainable model for human life and environments on Earth. As a matter of intelligent policy India should put a stop to all meat exports. 

Australian ranchers shoot cattle due to lack of feed Cattle ranchers in Northern Australia have had to resort to shooting their cattle because they just can’t feed or sell them.

The drought and the smaller live export trade has been blamed for the current conditions that cattle ranchers find themselves in. One of Australia’s largest beef producers was quoted as saying that the industry has little choice but to shoot cattle.Beef industry leaders have been warning this would happen. Over summer, much of northern Australia didn’t receive traditional monsoonal rain. That meant grass didn’t grow, so in parts, there’s nothing for cattle to eat.North west Queensland grazier Malcolm McClymont says conditions are worse than the 1974 world beef price collapse.Sisters Chanelle and Debra run a cattle station in northern Australia and say they’ve shot weak and sick cattle that don’t have food to eat. “It’s very hard when you’re counting down to the last cent and you’re looking at it and saying ‘I can’t feed that cow because I can’t afford it’,” Chanelle said. “If they haven’t got any food or no quality of water, are you just going to let it die a slow death of three or four days in a paddock, with the crows and the eagles picking their eyes out?” Debra said. “Or, do you take the bullet, put it in your gun, pull the trigger?”There are hundreds of northern Australian cattle producers who say their pain was avoidable. They blame the Federal Government’s 2011 live cattle export suspension with Indonesia, a trade that’s plunged into decline since that decision.